BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in mother, fetus and infant in many parts of the world particularly developing countries including Ethiopia. It has been increasing and linked to multiple factors, and making prevention of the disease a continuous challenge.
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of preeclampsia among pregnant women visiting ante natal or delivery care in four public health facilities of Addis Ababa City administrative, Ethiopia.
METHOD: This is a case control study of 261 (87 Cases and 174 Control) pregnant women attending antepartum or intrapartum. Bivariate analysis was run to assess crude association between predictor and outcome variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to see the effect of independent variables on the outcome variable for those p values < 0.2 in bivariate analysis.
RESULTS: The significantly associated risk factors with preeclampsia were BMI >30 [AOR 5.2 95% CI 2.1-12.6], age 18—23 years, [AOR .3, 95% CI .128 –.71)], low level of occupation/daily worker/, [AOR 0.3, 95% CI .128 –.71)], not know or heard preeclampsia [AOR 6.49 95% CI 3.02--13.9], and primigravidity [AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.143 –7.54)]. Whereas women who were gravid more than four [AOR 3.85, 95% CI 1.46 –10.1], previous history of preeclampsia [AOR 9.74 95% CI 2.38--39.8] and family history of hypertension [AOR 2.92, 95% CI 1.194 –7.1] after the effects of other significant risk factors were controlled in multivariate logistic analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence that socioeconomic, medical and obstetric variables have a significant influence on the odds of in pregnant woman. Effective interventions targeting risk factors of preeclampsia and routinely educate and create awareness by the pregnant woman towards risk factors of preeclampsia during antenatal care visit.
KEY WORDS: Preeclampsia, Risk Factor, knowledge, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
(Ethiopian Journal of Reproductive Health 2017;9:45-59)