The Health Belief Model Attitudes of Iraqi Women towards Breast Cancer and Its Early Detection Methods Health Belief Model about Breast Cancer
Health Belief Model (HBM) is a very effective paradigm designed to explore behaviours, especially in breast cancer prevention. This study aimed to determine women’s attitudes regarding breast cancer by using HBM and the interaction between attitudes and practice. This prevalence survey was performed on a consecutive sample of 657 women visiting the primary healthcare centres in Baghdad/ Iraq. The data was collected over four months in 2019. A specially designed questionnaire of modified and translated health belief model related to breast cancer was adopted and filled out through face-to-face interviews. The age of participants was between (20-59) years. Women with adequate practice of BSE (Breast Self-Exam) had higher perceived benefits, susceptibility, and motivation than those who inadequately practised it. Women with adequate practice of mammography had higher perceived benefits and health motivation, and lower barriers, threat, and severity of breast cancer other than those with inadequate practice. Those participants who were more likely to perform CBE (Clinical Breast Exam) adequately, those with higher levels of perceived seriousness and health motivation. Study results suggested that practices of screening for breast cancer were inadequate in a majority of participants and need to be improved by educational health programs.