Sileshi Garoma Temesgen File Fikadu Yadeta Fikadu Yadeta


Purpose: To assess the prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion and associated factors among women age 30-49 years in Sude district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
Methods: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 633 women age 30- 49 years from December 2019 to January 2020. Data were collected using structured and pretested questionnaires. Visual inspection with acetic acid was applied for screening by trained and experienced midwives. The collected data were entered and cleaned using Epi-Info-7 and exported to SPSS-21 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the study variables. Odds Ratio with its 95%CI was calculated and P- Value < 0.05 used as a cut off points to declare the significance.
Result: The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion was 4.7% (95% CI: 3.2, 6.5). Being older age (AOR, 3.5; 95% CI:1.32, 9.39), widowed and divorced (AOR, 7.96; 95% CI: 2.84, 22.32), having multiple sexual partner (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI: 1.03, 7.36), Polygamist (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI: 1.45, 13.47), history of inheritance (AOR, 5.83; 95% CI: 2.12, 16.4) and history of STI (AOR, 5.57; 95% CI: 2.07, 14.96) were factors associated with precancerous cervical lesion.
Conclusion: A significant prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion among women in the rural community is observed. Strategies like awareness creation and screening service at primary health care unit level is required. Measures in preventing to have more wives, wife inheritance, and reducing the number of sexual partners are required.




prevalence, community based, rural, cancer

1. World Health Organization, Reproductive Health and Research. Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice, 2014. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK269619/
2. Getahun F, Mazengia F, Abuhay M, Birhanu Z. Comprehensive knowledge about cervical cancer is low among women in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Cancer. 2013; 13(1):2.
3. Scarinci IC, Garcia FA, Kobetz E, Partridge EE, Brandt HM, Bell MC, Dignan M, Ma GX, Daye JL, Castle PE. Cervical cancer prevention. Cancer. 2010 ; 116(11):2531–2542.
4. Tefera B, Kerbo AA, Gonfa DB, Haile MT, others. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and its Associated Factors among Reproductive Age Women at Robe and Goba Towns, Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. Glob J Med Res 2016;16(1). Available from: https://globaljournals.org/GJMR_Volume16/3-Knowledge-of-Cervical-Cancer.pdf
5. Mitiku I, Tefera F. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Associated Factors among 15-49-Year-Old Women in Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia. Paraskevis D, editor. PLOS ONE. 2016 Sep 30; 11(9):e0163136.
6. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. World Health Organization 2013. Available at: file:///C:/Users/JSIL10k/Downloads/9789241548694_eng.pdf
7. Ntekim A. Cervical cancer in sub-Sahara Africa. INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012. Available from: http://www.glowm.com/pdf/CC-Chapter4.pdf
8. Federal Ministry of health of Ethiopia. National cancer control plan. Disease Prevention and Control Directorate, 2016-2020; 2015. Available at: https://www.iccp-portal.org/sites/default/files/plans/NCCP%20Ethiopia%20Final%20261015.pdf
9. Kassa RT. Risk factors associated with precancerous cervical lesion among women screened at Marie Stops Ethiopia, Adama town, Ethiopia 2017: a case control study. BMC Res Notes. 2018 [9]; 11(1). Available from: https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-018-3244-6
10. Gedefaw A, Astatkie A, Tessema GA. The Prevalence of Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesion among HIV-Infected Women in Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Atashili J, editor. PLoS ONE. 2013 Dec 20; 8(12):e84519.
11. Getinet M, Gelaw B, Sisay A, Mahmoud EA, Assefa A. Prevalence and predictors of Pap smear cervical epithelial cell abnormality among HIV-positive and negative women attending gynecological examination in cervical cancer screening center at Debre Markos referral hospital, East Gojjam, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Clin Pathol. 2015, 15(1). Available from: http://bmcclinpathol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12907-015-0016-2
12. Teame H, Addissie A, Ayele W, Hirpa S2 Gebremariam A, Gebreheat G, Jemal A. Factors associated with cervical precancerous lesions among women screened for cervical cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A case control study. Akinyemiju TF, editor. PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(1):e0191506. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29352278
13. Makuza JD, Nsanzimana S, Muhimpundu MA, Pace LE, Ntaganira J, Riedel DJ. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda. Pan Afr Med J. 2015; 22(1). Available from: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/pamj/article/view/132224
14. Ndejjo R, Mukama T, Musabyimana A, Musoke D. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 19; 11 (2): e0149696. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149696. eCollection 2016. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894270
15. Misgina KH, Belay HS and AbrahaTK. Prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion and associated factors among women in North Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 9 (3), pp. 46-50, 2017. DOI: 10.5897/JPHE2016.0891.
16. Meaza Ashenafi, Zenebeworke Tadesse. Women, HIV/AIDS, Property and Inheritance Rights: The Case of Ethiopia, 2005.
17. Memiah P, Mbuthia W, Kiiru G, Agbor S, Odhiambo F, Ojoo S, Biadgilign S. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesions among HIV-Infected Women in Resource-Limited Settings. AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012:1–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548156
18. Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and women WHO, 2013. Available from: www.who.int
19. Shiferaw N, Salvador-Davila G, Kassahun K, Brooks MI, Weldegebreal T, Tilahun Y, Asnake M. The Single-Visit Approach as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Strategy Among Women With HIV in Ethiopia: Successes and Lessons Learned. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016; 4(1):87–98. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807751/#!po=1.51515
20. MURUGI NA. DETERMINANTS OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING UPTAKE AMONG WOMEN IN EMBU COUNTY, KENYA. 2014. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c2ab/fb3262ab381097072026cbbc01f60b9eb529.pdf
21. Campos NG, Sharma M, Clark A, Kim JJ, Resch SC. Resources Required for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Consolaro MEL, editor. PLOS ONE. 2016 Oct 6; 11(10):e0164000.
22. Arsi Zonal health Department. Annual activity performances for 2019.
23. Durowade KA, Osagbemi GK, Salaudeen AG, Musa OI, Akande TM, Babatunde OA, Raji HO, Okesina BS, Fowowe AA, Ibrahim OO, Kolawole OM. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical cancer among women in an urban community of Kwara State, north central Nigeria. J Prev Med Hyg. 2012; 53(4). Available from: http://www.jpmh.org/index.php/jpmh/article/view/351
24. Deksissa ZM, Tesfamichael FA, Ferede HA. Prevalence and factors associated with VIA positive result among clients screened at Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, south west area office, Jimma model clinic, Jimma, Ethiopia 2013: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Note. 2015;8(1). Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/8/618
Original Articles

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'